PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein


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  1. says: PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ

    SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein If you read first Wittgenstein’s Tractatus and then follow it with his Philosophical Investigations you will treat yourself to perhaps the most fascinating intellectual development in the history of philosophy Wittgenstein has the distinct merit of producing not one but two enormously influential systems of philosophy—systems over that are at loggerheads with one another In fact I wouldn’t recommend attempting to tackle this work wi

  2. says: PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen

    PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein An offline discussion with Simon Evnine prompted me to reread the first few sections of this book which I hadn't looked at in ages They inspired the following short storyWang's First Day on the JobWang is a Chines

  3. says: PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen

    FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen This is the first work by Wittgenstein I’ve ever read I’ve been terrified of him for years truth be told I’ve read a biography by WW Bartley III wouldn’t you love to be ‘the third’? I would stick the three I’s on the

  4. says: PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ

    PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein I couldn't possibly do Philosophical Investigations justice in a review Even though I've read it several times I don't understand than a fraction of it The unworthy thought does sometimes cross my mind that its author didn't understand it either but you understand I'm just jealous because I'm not a Great Philosopher I would so like to be oneAssuming you aren't an aspiring Great Philosopher my advice is not to take this book too seriously it

  5. says: FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen

    SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein As a philosopher Wittgenstein isn't terribly systematic rather shocking for an analytic thinker I would argue that he's an original using analytic thought experiments continental literary examples pragmatic every

  6. says: Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein

    PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein o my crap what a tortured soul Ludwig Wittgenstein was this guy stared into the impenetrable pitch blackness that was the tangled m

  7. says: SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein

    PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen This book is too complex to summarize but here is a nutshell If you want to know the meaning of a word consider how the w

  8. says: Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen

    FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein This book was assembled posthumously Wittgenstein having published very little in his lifetime Although usually co

  9. says: SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein

    FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein Exasperating but worth itThe syntax of the Investigations has a jaggedly Asperger’s feel to it Too often Wittgenstein sounds like a malfunctioning android jabbering its core protocols to itself pacing in frantic circles waving its arms in a vexed “Philosophy is the sickness and I’m the cure” manner The loathsome blend of pedantry and vagueness throughout Part 1 hectoring in tone nebulous in definition can be maddening As

  10. says: PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen

    PDF Philosophische Untersuchungen » Ludwig Wittgenstein First off this book is only 197 pages long The reason Goodreads says it's 464 pages is because this edition is dual language One side is in German the original text and the other side is in EnglishCompared to othe

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SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen

FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen Mbered for ease of referenceNew detailed editorial endnotes explain decisions of translators and identify references and allusions in Wittgenstein's original textNow features new essays on the history of the Philosophical Investigations and the problems of translating Wittgenstein’s text. Exasperating but worth itThe syntax of the Investigations has a jaggedly Asperger s feel to it Too often Wittgenstein sounds like a malfunctioning android jabbering its core protocols to itself pacing in frantic circles waving its arms in a vexed Philosophy is the sickness and I m the cure manner The loathsome blend of pedantry and vagueness throughout Part 1 hectoring in tone nebulous in definition can be maddening As a communicator Wittgenstein often ranks with Kant or Heidegger pitiless kraut magi of galling opacity Your cognitive muscles will feel the burn Part 2 is rather less punishing with enticing stimulants on nearly every page while large swaths of Part 1 are a morale stunting crawl through banks of fog What s the dealKeep in mind that PI is a posthumous medley of notes and fragments that never benefitted from a final rigorous copyedit I ve also been told that the recent 2009 translation by Peter Hacker and Joachim Schulte is less stodgy and peeving than the classic Anscombe version An editor might be tempted to abridge Part 1 to a Best Of showcase for non academics but the moments of profundity strewn throughout that portion 75% of the book probably reuire the groundwork of the wearying fragments to shore up Wittgenstein s visionSo what s the payoff Well a panoptic voyage into speech and semantics that s both rousing emancipatory and at times painfully obvious The latter as we ve washed ashore in a postphilosophical age that takes so much of Wittgenstein for granted but also because his expository style can read like an amnesiac head trauma patient attempting to reconstruct language use from scratch poking and prodding at kindergarten level grammar to explore how situational semantics weaves and bends through our intricately embodied moment to moment actualities all tempered by an uneasy nostalgia for positivist puzzles boxed in the attic radiant antiues that gave so much faux luster to our mental livesWittgenstein wants us to detox to scrape out the arterial plaue of false problems Fundamental confusions about language use he fears have staggered us into an ersatz world of epistemic mazes and circular obstacle courses a bad Philip K Dick novel of cloying simulacra PI aims to unjack us from this Matrix wrench us back down into our bodies a homecoming to and abashed rediscovery of the everyday Though Darwin is never mentioned in PI Wittgenstein s corrosive presence in the philosophical canon is comparable to evolutionary models preempting theological sleight of hand Post theist armchair philosophy in Wittgenstein s eyes is still beholden to the system erecting wankfest of priestly theorizing To reiterate a familiar story we ve displaced ancient Platonic illusions into the matrices of rationalist projects which refuse to accept that our universe is non linguistic and so can never be mirrored or simulated by our anthropic earthbound syntax Our lives are short and our knowledge is crimped and narrow It s best we have the humility to concede our limits pending some dubious self immolating transhumanist upgrade As with Kant wisdom often means knowing what we can t do 426 A picture is conjured up which seems to fix the sense unambiguously The actual use compared with that suggested by the picture seems like something muddied Here again we get the same thing as in set theory the form of expression we use seems to have been designed for a god who knows what we cannot know he sees the whole of each of those infinite series and he sees into human consciousness For us of course these forms of expression are like pontificals which we may put on but cannot do much with since we lack the effective power that would give these vestments meaning and purpose In the actual use of expressions we make detours we go by side roads We see the straight highway before us but of course we cannot use it because it is permanently closed pg 108 Blackwell 2001To prime yourself download the two part Partially Examined Life podcast Wittgenstein on Language Episode 55 15307 56 15301 roundtable discussion throughout is very good My only niggle pertains to one of the participants bungling the renowned Piero Sraffa anecdote mistakenly attributing it to GE Moore The fact that the remaining scholars claim never to have heard of it is eually strange It s at least as famous as the Karl Popper fireplace poker episode Wittgenstein even thanks Sraffa in his Preface Oh wellPHILOSOPHICAL INVESTIGATIONS translated by GEM AnscombeA for substantive vision and historical importance C for expository claritySpecial bonus trackWas Wittgenstein Right by Paul Horwich NYU The Stone New York Times Opinionator blog 3313

FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig WittgensteinPhilosophische Untersuchungen

FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen Incorporating significant editorial changes from earlier editions the fourth edition of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations is the definitive en face German English version of the most important work of 20th century philosophy The extensively revised English translation inco. If you read first Wittgenstein s Tractatus and then follow it with his Philosophical Investigations you will treat yourself to perhaps the most fascinating intellectual development in the history of philosophy Wittgenstein has the distinct merit of producing not one but two enormously influential systems of philosophy systems over that are at loggerheads with one another In fact I wouldn t recommend attempting to tackle this work without first reading the Tractatus as the Investigations is essentially one long refutation and critiue of his earlier conventional views But because I wish to give a short summary of some of Wittgenstein s later views here I will first give a little pr cise of the earlier work In the Tractatus Wittgenstein argues that language has one primary function to state facts Language is a logical picture of the world A given proposition mirrors a given state of affairs This leads Wittgenstein to regard a great many types of utterances as strictly nonsense For example since ethics is not any given state of affairs language couldn t possible picture it therefore all propositions in the form of action X is morally good are nonsense Wittgenstein honestly believed that this solved all the problems of philosophy Long standing problems about causation truth the mind goodness beauty etc were all attempts to use language to picture something which it could not because beauty truth etc are not states of affairs Philosophers only need stop the attempt to transcend the limits of language and the problems would disappear In his words The solution of the problem of life is seen in the vanishing of this problem After publishing this work and taking leave of professional philosophy as he thought it had been dealt with Wittgenstein began to have some doubts Certain everyday uses of language seemed hard to account for if you regarded language as purely a truth stating tool These doubts eventually culminated in a return to Cambridge and to philosophy His posthumously published Investigations represents the fullest expression of his later views So what are these views Well first let us compare the styles of the two works The writing in both the Tractatus and the Investigations is extraordinary Wittgenstein is one of the very finest writers of philosophy in a league with Nietzsche and Plato He uses almost no technical terms and very simple sentence structures yet his phrases can stick in the mind for months years after first reading them Just the other day I was having a conversation with my German tutor about learning a foreign language To something I said she responded Die Grenzen meiner Spracher bedeuten die Grenzen meiner Welt The limits of my language are the limits of my world a uote from the Tractatus Although the writing in both works is eually compelling the structures are uite different In the Tractatus Wittgenstein s argument is unified complete he even numbers his sentences as primary secondary and tertiary in terms of their importance to the argument In that work we can clearly see the influence of Bertrand Russell s logicism language is reduced to logical propositions and the argument is organized along logical grounds The reader of the Investigations will encounter something uite different Wittgenstein writes in similarly terse aphorisms he even retains a numbering system for his points each individual point getting its own numbered paragraph The numbering of these paragraphs however is cumulative and does not express anything about their significance to his larger design It is almost as if Wittgenstein wrote down his thoughts on numbered flash cards and simply constructed the book by moving the flash cards around Unlike the Tractatus which resolves itself into a unified whole the Investigations is fragmentary I begin with style because the contrast in writing is a clue to the differences in thought between the earlier and later works Unlike the Tractatus the Investigations is rather a collection of observations and ideas The spirit of Wittgenstein s later enterprise is anti systematic rather than systematic Wittgenstein aims not at erecting a whole edifice of thought but at destroying other edifices Thus the text jumps from topic to topic without any explicit connections or transitions now attacking one common philosophical idea now another The experience can often be exasperating since Wittgenstein is being intentionally obliue rather than direct In the words of John Searle reading the Investigations is like getting a kit for a model airplane without any explanation for how to put it together Let me attempt to put some of these pieces together at least the pieces that were especially useful to me Wittgenstein replaces his old picture metaphor with a new tool metaphor Instead of a word being meaningful because it pictures a fact the meaning of a word is at least most of the time synonymous with the social use of that word For example the word pizza does not mean pizza because it names the food rather it means pizza because you can use the word to order the food at a restaurant So instead of the reference to a type of object being primary the social use is primary This example reveals a general uality of Wittgenstein s later thought the replacement of the objectivesubjective dichotomy with the notion of public social behavior Philosophers have traditionally posited theories of meaning that are either internal or external For example pizza can mean the particular food either because the word points to the food or because the word points to our idea or sensation of the food Either language is reporting objective states of affairs or subjective internal experiences Wittgenstein destroys the external argument with a very simple observation Take the word game If the external theory of meaning is correct the word game must mean what it does because it points to something essential about games But what is the essential uality that makes games games Is there any Some games are not social think of solitaire some games are not trivial think of the Olympic Games some games are not conseuence free think of compulsive gambling and some games are social trivial and conseuence free Is a game something that you play But you also play records and trombones So what is the essential single uality of game that our word refers to Wittgenstein says there isn t any Rather the word game takes on different meanings in different social contexts or modes of discourse Wittgenstein calls these different modes of discourse language games Some examples of language games are that of mimicking of joking of mourning of philosophizing of religious discourse Every language game has its own rules therefore any proposed all encompassing theory of language like Wittgenstein s own Tractatus will fail because it attempts to reduce the irreducible You cannot reduce chess soccer solitaire black jack and tag to one set of rules the same is true says Wittgenstein of language Another popular theory of meaning is the internal theory This theory holds that propositions mean things by referring to thoughts or sensations When I refer to pain I am referring to an internal object when I refer to a bunny I am referring to a set of visual sensations that I have learned to call bunny Wittgenstein makes short work of this argument too Let s start with the argument about sensations Wittgenstein points out that our sensations of an object say a bunny are not something that we experience as it were purely Rather our interpretations alter the sensations themselves To illustrate this Wittgenstein uses perhaps the funiest example in all of philosophy the duck rabbit As you can see whether you interpret this conglomeration of shapes lines and spaces as a rabbit or a duck depends on your interpretation and if you had never seen a duck or a rabbit in your life the picture would look rather strange Ernst Gombrich summed up this point uite nicely in his Story of Art If we look out of the window we can see the view in a thousand different ways Which of them is our sense impression The point of all this is that trying to make propositions about sense impressions is like trying to hit a moving target since you only see something a certain way because of certain beliefs or experiences you already hold The argument about inner feelings is eually weak For example when we learned the word pain did someone somehow point to the feeling and name it Clearly that s impossible What actually happens is that we or someone else exhibited normal behavioral manifestations of pain crying moaning tearing clutching the afflicted area The word pain then is used at least originally to refer to pain behavior and we later use the word pain as a replacement for our infantile pain behavior instead of moaning and clutching our arm we tell someone we have a pain and that it s in our arm This shows that the internal referent of the word pain is not fundamental to its meaning but is derivative of its fundamental public use This may seem trivial but this line of argument is a powerful attack on the entire Cartesian tradition Let me give you an example Ren Descartes famously sat in his room and then tried to doubt the whole world He then got down to his own ego and tried to build the work back up from there This line of thought places the individual at the center of the epistemological uestion and makes all other phenomena derivative of the fundamental subjective experience of certainty But let us as Wittgenstein advises examine the normal use of the word to know You say I know Tom or I know American history If someone asked you What makes you say you know Tom and American history you might say something like I can pick Tom s face out of a crowd or I could pass a history test Already you are giving social criteria for what it means to know In fact the word to know presupposes the ability to verify something with something that is not yourself You would never verify something you remember by pointing to another thing you remember that would be absurd since your memory is the thing being tested Instead you indicate an independent criterion for determining whether or not you know something The social test of knowledge is also explicit in science since experiments must be repeatable and communicable if a scientist said I know this but I my can t prove it once that would not be science So because knowing anything apparently reuires some kind of social confirmation the Cartesian project of founding knowledge on subjective experience is doomed from the start Knowing anything reuires at least two people since you couldn t know if you were right or wrong without some kind of social confirmation Wittgenstein brings this home with his discussion of private language Let s say you had a feeling that nobody has told you how to name As a result you suspect that this feeling is uniue to yourself and so you create your own name for it Every time you have the feeling you apply this made up name to it But how do you know if you re using the name correctly How do you know that every time you use your private name you are referring to the same feeling You can t check it against your memory since your memory is the very thing being doubted You can t ask somebody else because nobody else knows this name or has this sensation Therefore merely thinking you re using the name consistently and actually using the name consistently would be indistinguishable experiences You could never really know Although Wittgenstein s views changed dramatically from the early to the late phase of his career you can see some intriguing similarities One main current of Wittgenstein s thought is that all philosophical problems result from the misuse of language Compare this statement from the Tractatus All philosophy is Critiue of language with this from the Investigations Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language In both works Wittgenstein is convinced that philosophical problems only arise because of the misuses of language that philosophers either attempt to say the unsayable or confuse the rules of one language game with another producing nonsense I cannot say I ve thought through Wittgenstein s points fully enough to say whether I agree or disagree with them But whether wrong or right Wittgenstein already has the ultimate merit of any philosopher provoking thought about fundamental uestions And even if he was wrong about everything his books would be worth reading for the writing alone Reading Wittgenstein can be very much like taking straight shots of vodka it burns on the way down it addles your brain it is forceful and overwhelming but after all the pain and toil the end result is pleasant elation

Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ

FREE DOWNLOAD ´ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook é Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein é 0 FREE READ SUMMARY Philosophische Untersuchungen Rporates many hundreds of changes to Anscombe’s original translation Footnoted remarks in the earlier editions have now been relocated in the textWhat was previously referred to as ‘Part 2’ is now republished as Philosophy of Psychology – A Fragment and all the remarks in it are nu. o my crap what a tortured soul Ludwig Wittgenstein was this guy stared into the impenetrable pitch blackness that was the tangled midnight jungle of his own inner existence sharpened his machete and plunged in hacking and flailing and lunging wildly he wrestles chiefly with the concepts of language meaning understanding and states of consciousness part I consists of 693 short numbered sections about 4 to a page this was sent to the publisher but pulled back at the last second five years before LW died after he died his further writings were scraped together and comprise part II loosely divided into 13 short sections plus 1 long one there is no steady development but sometimes long chains of remarks on one topic sometimes sudden changes of topic he often puts statements or uestions in uotation marks as though thrown at him by someone playing devil s advocate it is all extremely personal written very much in the first personthe first half of this book is soooooo much better than the second half i looked in my notebook and found that i jotted 111 notes from the first 120 pages and only 34 from the last 110 pages by the end i was uite happy for it to be over so maybe it doesn t deserve 5 stars but some of it is uite amazing he concludes the introductionIt is not impossible that it should fall to the lot of this work in its poverty and in the darkness of this time to bring light into one brain or another but of course it is not likely I should not like my writing to spare other people the trouble of thinking But if possible to stimulate someone to thoughts of his ownI should have liked to produce a good book This has not come about but the time is past in which I could improve itjust for that he gets 5 stars from me

  • Hardcover
  • 592
  • Philosophische Untersuchungen
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein
  • en
  • 16 July 2020
  • 9781405159289