[PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant


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    Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant I read this after the Prolegomena but before the three Critiues It is probably best read after reading at least the first two Criti

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    [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Read & download Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason Religion hereafter is a passionate statement of Kant's mature philosophy of religion As the title suggests Kant believes that religious experience is best understood through rationalism an important philosophical movement in the 18th 19th and 20th centuries that argues we know

  3. says: Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters

    [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant I'm sure that this is a towering work of genius and all that but I just don't agree with Kant on very much at all It's a noble project that he undertakes here attempting to find the rational religion that all humans can and indeed must subscribe to It involves peeling back the layers of revealed truths to find

  4. says: [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant

    [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant I am convinced that people who complain about Kant’s philosophy who claim that his writing is dry and that his thought consists in detached intellectualizations with no real bearing on everyday human existence h

  5. says: Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters

    [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Kant's work is indispensable for understanding aspects of the Enlightenment that ruptured the early Modern worldview The boo

  6. says: Read & download Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant

    [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Along the same lines of his Critiue project Kant talks about religion and the limits of reason Kant says that in order to act freely we must have some power to ratify or reject our desires Maxims allow us to accept

  7. says: [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant

    [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant When I was a youngster I had to attend church regularly I went through the confirmation process to become an official member of the Methodist Church but the entire experience never touched me either emotionally or intellect

  8. says: Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant

    Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant This gets a 3 star liked it not because I agree with Kant's understanding of religion or with his overall philosophical project but because it was so helpful to understand the thought historically downstream of him and Hume

  9. says: [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant

    Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Another great surprise in my life found on another evening examining the aisles of an ancient indispensable library When it comes down to the mind breaking process of contemplating the ontology of religion this text is a feast for those put off by the current religiosity of atheism Don't tell me that nothing com

  10. says: Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant

    Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant [PDF FREE] (Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft) by Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters Essential reading for any ethic modulesdegrees

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Read & download Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft

Read & download Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant Ar de grondslag en de betekenis van het geloof wat mag ik hopen vinden we reeds in de drie grote Kritieken van Kant maar de meest uitvoerige behandeling ervan treffen we aan in de in 1793 verschenen tek. This gets a 3 star liked it not because I agree with Kant s understanding of religion or with his overall philosophical project but because it was so helpful to understand the thought historically downstream of him and Hume who impacted Kant regarding religion and Protestant Christianity

Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel KantDie Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft

Read & download Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant De religie binnen de grenzen van de rede is Kants reflectie op het ‘radicale kwaad’ in de menselijke natuur Hij onderzoekt daarbij of het goede over dit kwaad kan zegevieren en welke rol de religie. Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason Religion hereafter is a passionate statement of Kant s mature philosophy of religion As the title suggests Kant believes that religious experience is best understood through rationalism an important philosophical movement in the 18th 19th and 20th centuries that argues we know some things intuitively not through experience and that we can determine certain absolute truths by relying on this intuitive knowledgeIn Religion Kant explores the legitimacy of religious experience He argues that organized religion often gets in the way of genuine religious experience thereby threatening the moral development of humanity This argument spans four sectionsIn Part One Kant discusses whether human nature is inherently evil or inherently good He thinks we have a predisposition to engage in good behavior which comes in three instinctual urges propagating the species fostering meaningful stable relationships with others and respecting the moral law Kant thinks that in addition to our inclination to be good we have a simultaneous propensity for evil or immoral behavior Kant suggests that we will see the truth of his thesis if we examine the evil abroad in the world around us The state of current political and social life will convince skeptics that people are in need of moral developmentIn Part Two Kant argues that it is possible for us to become morally good by following the example of Jesus Christ who resisted enticing temptations and by instituting a wholehearted change in behaviorIn Part Three Kant says it may be possible to create a society that fosters moral behavior Such a society would emulate the ideal church invisible an association of individuals committed to living morally upright lives Kant says that rituals and professions of faith are not essential for the establishment of a morally sound religious community We can know our duty to observe the moral law without the aid of miracles or common religious practicesIn Part Four Kant continues to criticize certain aspects of organized religion He says that much of existing organized religion does not help people improve their moral standing Incantations professions of faith and even consistent participation in religious services cannot transform the morally corrupt into the morally uprightPhilosophers since Kant have uarreled with two main problems that arise in this section First one might wonder why maxims the rules that human beings formulate internally when they make choices have to be either good or bad rather than both at the same time Second one might uestion Kant s assertion that any action not performed wholly from a sense of duty is evilKant says that maxims cannot encompass both good and bad desires He believes that every desire that we face every impulse that competes for our ratification falls into one of two categories run of the mill everyday desires or the desire to fulfill your duty and do what the moral law reuires He says we can only be good if we do what duty calls for and when we act on everyday desires and impulses as we often do we are acting immorallyKant excludes the possibility that maxims can include than one desire or impulse Professional philosophers have struggled with this issue and most of them either admit Kant s belief that maxims are only motivated by one desire or insist that maxims can strictly speaking include than one desire or inclination The latter theory appears to be consistent with Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason For instance Kant says in 624 that free action not based on the moral law must be based upon an everyday desire and that it follows that his disposition as regards the moral law is never indifferent never neither good nor bad This uotation shows Kant s idea that an everyday desire and duty can be unified in one maxim although the resulting behavior must be considered evil not goodThis brings us to the second problem why do maxims forged from a combination of duty and everyday desire have to be considered evil Again philosophers have given two responses Some have said that actions done from both duty and desire are not necessarily evil but rather lack in Kantian terminology full moral worth This response assumes that passages where Kant describes as evil actions motivated by duty and desire are merely exaggerations Yet some philosophers have said that Kant did mean to call such behavior evilKant might mean to stress that our predisposition to evil is the real problem not the moral worth of the actions themselves In 630 Kant says that humans have an overwhelming tendency to engage in immoral behavior and the mind s attitude is thereby corrupted at its root and hence the human being is designated as evil

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Read & download Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft Immanuel Kant ´ 0 Characters Review Ü PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook ´ Immanuel Kant Daarbij kan spelen Ook vandaag de dag is dit boek nog verrassend actueelWat kan ik kennen Wat moet ik doen Wat mag ik hopen Deze drie vragen vormen het centrale punt in de filosofie van Kant De vraag na. Along the same lines of his Critiue project Kant talks about religion and the limits of reason Kant says that in order to act freely we must have some power to ratify or reject our desires Maxims allow us to accept or reject a given desire and hence allow us to act freely Because a maxim is good only duty inspires it human nature can only be good in accordance with duty or evil in accordance with everyday desires In order to be morally responsible you must not only have an intention to do something you must also have a maxim or principle that puts the final stamp of approval on your intentions The moral law is part of what makes us rational creatures But we certainly can demote the moral law and the tendency to do this is what makes us essentially evil He argues that when we make decisions we often put our inclinations first combine them with our sense of duty or ignore duty altogether In his eyes each of these tendencies ualifies human beings as morally evilThat through the moral law man is called to a good course of life that through unuenchable respect for this law lying in him he finds in himself justification for confidence in this good spirit and for hope that however it may come about he will be able to satisfy this spirit finally that comparing the last named expectation with the stern command of the law he must continually test himself as though summoned to account before a judge reason heart and conscience all teach this and urge its fulfilmentHere we then have a complete religion which can be proposed to all human beings comprehensibly and convincingly through their own reasonKant offers an illuminating metaphor of two concentric circles the inner one representing the core of the one religion of pure moral reason and the outer one representing many revealed historical religions all of which should include and build on that core Existing religious traditions are important if they provide the opportunity for moral reflectionA religion accordingly can be natural and at the same time revealed when it is so constituted that men could and ought to have discovered it of themselves merely through the use of their reason although they would not have come upon it so early or over so wide an area as is reuired Hence a revelation thereof at a given time and in a given place might well be wise and very advantageous to the human race in that when once the religion thus introduced is here and has been made known publicly everyone can henceforth by himself and with his own reason convince himself of its truth In this event the religion is objectively a natural religion though subjectively one that has been revealedKant criticizes certain aspects of organized religion as a whole He starts by denying the certainty of revelation and the the limitations time place and language of this revelationPure religious faith alone can found a universal church for only such rational faith can be believed in and shared by everyone whereas an historical faith grounded solely on facts can extend its influence no further than tidings of it can reach subject to circumstances of time and place and dependent upon the capacity of men to judge the credibility of such tidingsEvery faith which as an historical faith bases itself upon books needs for its security a learned public for whom it can be controlled as it were by writers who lived in those times who are not suspected of a special agreement with the first disseminators of the faith and with whom our present day scholarship is connected by a continuous tradition The pure faith of reason in contrast stands in need of no such documentary authentication but proves itselfPeople demand divine revelation and hence also an historical certification of its authority through the tracing back of its origin Now human skill and wisdom cannot ascend so far as heaven in order itself to inspect the credentials validating the mission of the first Teacher It must be content with evidence that can be elicited apart from the content as to the way in which such a faith has been introduced that is with human reports which must be searched out little by little from very ancient times and from languages now dead for evaluation as to their historical credibilityFor how are the unlearned who can read it only in translation to be certain of its meaning Hence the expositor in addition to being familiar with the original tongue must also be a master of extended historical knowledge and criticism in order that from the conditions customs and opinions the popular faith of the times in uestion he may be able to derive the means wherewith to enlighten the understanding of the ecclesiastical commonwealthNow even though the announcement of such an historical event as well as the faith in rules of conduct based upon it cannot be said to have been vouchsafed solely or primarily to the learned or the wise of the world these latter are yet not excluded from it conseuently there arise so many doubts in part touching its truth and in part touching the sense in which its exposition is to be taken that to adopt such a belief as this subjected as it is to so many controversies however sincerely intentioned as the supreme condition of a universal faith alone leading to salvation is the most absurd course of action that can be conceived ofHe says that much of existing organized religion does not help people improve their moral standing Professions of faith and even consistent participation in religious services cannot transform the morally corrupt into the morally upright Kant Also thinks that like all formally organized religions encourages religious delusion Those suffering from religious delusions think that simply believing in a religious doctrine makes them better in God s eyes Kant thinks it deluded to believe that God is pleased when we profess faith in Jesus for example Kant says there are three kinds of religious delusions all of which we should avoid We should not believe in miracles since we do not have direct empirical evidence of miracles occurring today or in the days of old Kant also speaks against religious mysteries since their existence also cannot be proven through reasonHe also denounces clericalism as promoting such misguided pseudo service which mistake participation in these practices for true moral conductBetween a shaman of the Tunguses and the European prelate who rules over both church and state or if instead of the heads and leaders we only want to look at the faithful and their ways of representation between the wholly sensuousp Wogulite who in the morning lays the paw of a bear skin over his head with the short prayer Strike me not dead and the sublimated Puritan and Independent in Connecticut there certainly is a tremendous distance in the style of faith but not in the principle for as regards the latter they all eually belong to one and the same class namely of those who place their service of God in something faith in certain statutory articles or the observance of certain arbitrary practices which cannot by itself constitute a better human being Only those whose intention is to find this service solely in the disposition to good life conduct distinguish themselves from those others by crossing over into an entirely different principle one exalted far above the other namely the principle whereby they profess themselves members of a invisible church which encompasses all right thinking people within itself and alone in virtue of its essential composition can be the true church universalWe should not believe that religious rituals or professions of faith will make us righteous in God s eyes Kant claims that as long as we are earnest in trying to become morally upright as long as we act in true devotion to duty God will take care of the rest Religious practices can be either good expressions of devotion if they bind us together in moral community or bad expressions of mere pseudo service if designed to ingratiate us with God Kant wants to clarify that good religious groups are those that value the moral improvement of their members over the observance of ritual and dogmaWhatever over and above good life conduct man fancies that he can do to become well pleasing to God is mere religious delusion People are fooling themselves if they think they really understand God Professing to know what God is and what he wants does absolutely nothing for our own moral improvementBut if this very faith in a divine Trinity were to be regarded not just as the representation of a practical idea but as a faith that ought to represent what God is in himself it would be a mystery surpassing all human concepts hence unsuited to a revelation humanly comprehensible and could only be declared in this respect as mystery Faith in it as an extension of theoretical cognition of the divine nature would only be the profession of a creed of ecclesiastical faith totally unintelligible to human beings or if they think that they understand it the profession of an anthropomorphic creed and not the least would thereby be accomplished for moral improvementKant goes on to explain that all religious faiths involve something holy that people can comprehend this holy uality is usually embodied in a moral ruler of the world a deity who has the final word on all moral uestions and concerns Some faiths articulate the relationship between the moral ruler and humanity better than others For Kant true religions believe in a God who is as a morally holy lawgiver a benevolent ruler and a just judge and administrator of his laws He speaks against a concept of God a World Ruler who transforms this duty into a command to us a figure who demands reverence to him which makes us act as slaves for him because this turns religion from morality through reason to idolatrythere is something which so exalts the soul and so leads it to the very Deity who is worthy of adoration only because of His holiness and as Legislator for virtue that man even when he is still far from allowing to this concept the power of influencing his maxims is yet not unwillingly sustained by it because he feels himself to a certain extent ennobled by this idea already even while the concept of a World Ruler who transforms this duty into a command to us still lies far from him But to commence with this latter concept would incur the danger of dashing man s courage which goes to constitute the essence of virtue and transforming godliness into a fawning slavish subjection to a despotically commanding might In that which concerns the moral disposition everything depends upon the highest concept under which one subsumes one s duties When reverence for God is put first with virtue therefore subordinated to it this object of reverence becomes an idol that is He is thought of as a Being whom we may hope to please not through morally upright conduct on earth but through adoration and ingratiation and religion is then idolatry But godliness is not a surrogate for virtue whereby we may dispense with the latter rather is it virtue s consummation enabling us to be crowned with the hope of the ultimate achievement of all our good endsKant says to escape all those dogmas interpretation is necessary to make sense of religious scriptures and that existing religious practices and religious scriptures do not always interpret correctly Kant says that clever people of considerable moral fortitude should be responsible for interpreting a given religious tradition Individuals whose primary loyalty is to reason are in the best position to ensure that religious practices improve people s morals Kant thinks that such interpreters are needed because some aspects of religious doctrine actually run contrary to moral principles Read Kierkegaard Fear and Trembling to see the opposing point of viewKant reinterprets Christianity He starts by the role of Jesus Christ and humanity s proper relationship to Jesus saying that the idea of Jesus Christ stripped of particular religious beliefs surrounding him is simply the idea of a perfect moral being A morally perfect being must be capable of falling from grace but able to resist the fall According to Kant we can wash out evil by modeling ourselves on this perfect moral being Jesus should be merely an example that can inspire us to engage in moral behavior Then he moves to the idea of original sin Kant rejects that because of Adam and Eve all humans are born sinful He thinks the biblical story of Adam and Eve should be understood allegorically not literally Kant says we fall from grace not because of Adam and Eve but because of our own bad behavior We are not guilty for the sins of Adam and Eve but guilty for using our free will to choose immoral desires and thoughts Finally he come to the idea of salvation through faith in Jesus his main complaint is that it isn t enough to absolve human beings of their sinsThere is absolutely no salvation for human beings except in the innermost adoption of genuine moral principles in their disposition From our human perspective religion both revealed and natural should be regarded as the recognition of all duties as divine commandsKant makes a particularly provocative claim that ultimately there is only one true religion the religion of morality while there can be various historical faiths promoting it From this perspective Judaism Islam and the various denominations of Christianity are all legitimate faiths to be located in Kant s metaphorical outer circle including the true religion of morality his metaphorical inner circle However some faiths can be relatively adeuate expressions of the religion of moral reason than othersHence to start off with this knowledge and to let the historical faith which harmonizes with it follow is not only an act of prudence it is also our duty to make such knowledge the supreme condition under which alone we can hope to become participants in whatever salvation a religious faith may promise So true is this that only as warranted by the interpretation which pure religious faith gives to the historical can we hold the latter to be universally binding or are we entitled to allow its validity for it does contain universally valid teaching meanwhile the moral believer is ever open to historical faith so far as he finds it furthering the vitality of his pure religious disposition Only thus does historical faith possess a pure moral worth because here it is free and not coerced through any threat for then it can never be honestKant likes the fact that Christianity s message can be communicated to human beings Further humans can evaluate Christianity s moral teachings without any special training They do not need scholarly ability special insight or divine election to understand Christianity Christianity is both a natural and a revealed religion and Kant shows how the gospel of Matthew expresses Kantian ethics with Jesus as its wise moral teacher According to Kant a comparison between Judaism and Christianity shows how revolutionary the Christian faith can be In his view Judaism has restricted its membership to an exclusive group of people thereby thwarting any possibility of developing into a universal church whose laws would apply to all people Also Judaism s core principles are akin to public laws than to internal moral principlesChristianity possesses the great advantage over Judaism of being represented as coming from the mouth of the first Teacher not as a statutory but as a moral religion and as thus entering into the closest relation with reason so that through reason it was able of itself without historical learning to be spread at all times and among all peoples with the greatest trustworthiness For Kant faith is useless unless individuals devote themselves to their own moral improvement He believes that the innate good in people will cause them to turn away from ecclesiastical faith and religious practices and toward moral religion He does not claim that people will convert to moral religion because it is simpler than traditional religions In fact moral religion is demanding than ecclesiastical faith for it reuires every individual to take full responsibility for becoming a better person In the end if we do not discover this truth we are responsible for we did not search our own hearts long enough to uncover it There exists meanwhile a practical knowledge which while resting solely upon reason and reuiring no historical doctrine lies as close to every man even the most simple as though it were engraved upon his heart a law which we need but name to find ourselves at once in agreement with everyone else regarding its authority and which carries with it in everyone s consciousness unconditioned binding force to wit the law of morality What is this knowledge either leads alone and of itself to belief in God or at least determines the concept of Him as that of a moral Legislator hence it guides us to a pure religious faith which not only can be comprehended by every man but also is in the highest degree worthy of respect

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  • Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßen Vernunft
  • Immanuel Kant
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  • 22 June 2018
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